Other areas of focus are improving mechanisms and monitoring frameworks of development and well-being indicators. Other areas of published work include time use patterns among adolescents, academic stress, single parenting, positive youth development and social policy. As an active member of various professional organizations such as ISSBD and SRCD, her interests are in i promoting greater visibility for the Asian region in professional societies; ii capacity building and mentoring initiatives for professional growth of young scholars in the region; and iii facilitating regional collaborations and creating opportunities for resource sharing.
Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. FAQ Policy. About this book This book presents new scientific knowledge on using developmental science to improving lives of children and youth across the globe. We provide neural evidence that visual categorization of faces is shaped by concomitant maternal odor inputs at 4 months of age. These results support a multisensory account ofcategory acquisition in the human brain.
We tested whether children with Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD might use a compensatory strategy to avoid direct eye contact by processing eyes through peripheral vision. We found that children with ASD still looked less at eyes than typically developing TD children when scanning blurred faces. Our results rule out the hypothesis that children with ASD use a compensatory strategy to process eyes through peripheral vision. This study is the first to provide neural evidence demonstrating that infant action processing is linked to preschool theory of mind TOM.
en.fygogyxifexu.tk Additional exploratory analyses suggest that infants' neural response during action execution may be associated with effortful control at age 3 and subsequently TOM. Working memory training in schools was found to improve children's working memory performance and mathematical reasoning ability.
Working memory benefits were maintained three months later and were significantly greater for children that received additional metacognitive strategy training. Beginning readers with a family risk for dyslexia display poorer phonemic representations in bilateral temporal regions. Yet, no differences between typical and dyslexic readers were observed. This indicates that poor phonemic represenations are trait family risk and not state dyslexia dependent.
Language control development in bilingual children, measured through the language switching paradigm, was modulated by both the amount of language exposure and improvement in executive control. Children who received more second language exposure and better developed their executive control performances showed greater improvement in naming pictures in their L2. Evidence for selective facial reactions was found in response to happy leading to increased zygomaticus major ZM activation and angry leading to increased corrugator supercilii CS activation action kinematics.
Humans engage in sophisticated social cognitive reasoning: we reason about mental states — i. Between ages three and seven years, we observed increasing predictive neural responses to the second viewing of the movie.
For all objects, parents demonstrated actions closer i. Conditioned responses were positively associated with geometry use on a spatial reorientation test, indicating hippocampal involvement in the task. We tested whether children show inefficient control engagement due to difficulty monitoring their performance.
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We argue that metacognitive reflection is critical for efficient control engagement. This study has found that individual differences in children's imitative behavior across different tasks can be best characterized by a model that included two behavioral routines; one corresponding to faithful imitation, and one to goal emulation. Moreover, individual differences in faithful imitation and goal emulation were correlated with individual differences in theory of mind, prosocial behavior, and temperament.
Children with a history of institutionalization, placed into foster care, showed normative pattern of brain activation at age 16 years. The children who remained in institutions showed immature brain activation.
Disruptions following the original foster care placement had an adverse effect on brain electrical activity. Early placement in foster care and stability of placement can improve brain function and yield long term improvements in brain activity for children living in institutions.
Dyads of captive apes and human children could access the same food resources. Apes failed to respect what belonged to others and frequently monopolized resources. Human children respected their partner's food and made spontaneous verbal references to ownership.
The study examined the relationship between family socioeconomic status, alterations in brain structure, and ADHD status in youth. Subcortical volume in the cerebellum and the caudate mediated the relationship between low socioeconomic status and ADHD in children. We find partial support for this hypothesis. In our study, more current exposure to violence predicts intact or even enhanced memory for social dominance relationships, but more childhood exposure to violence predicts impaired memory for social dominance relationships.
The relation between physical aspects of the home and reading ability was stronger in those with greater cortical thickness. Early sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise times measured in infancy at 7 and 10 months is significantly related to vocabulary size measured in early childhood at 3 years of age. The relationship between early rise time sensitivity and later linguistic attainment suggests that infants with better rise time sensitivity process the speech signal more effectively.
Children typically do not integrate multisensory information in an optimal fashion. Children lose confidence in their ability to "be scientists", but not to "do science" over both the course of a school year and over the developmental trajectory. Both counting conditions improved understanding of cardinality through increases in children's ability to label set sizes without counting.
The artificial array presentations used in previous studies might have underestimated infant abilities as they lack context and are unfamiliar to infants. We measured pupil size as indicator of cognitive effort and surprise.
This is a proof of principle study providing evidence that interventions targeting attentional control and working memory processes form a viable avenue of research into reducing cognitive vulnerability to anxiety and depression during adolescence. When do infants recognize that [da di do du de] all share the same initial consonant? Using an intersensory matching procedure, we show that infants aged 6 to 9 months are able to categorize consonant place of articulation across different vowel contexts, provided that they produce the corresponding consonants in babbling.
In other words, speech production abilities contribute to structuring the perceptual consonant space. We found that infants produced more vocal imitation when looking at i upright rather than inverted faces, ii the mouth rather than eyes of the speaker, and iii when the speaker was looking directly at rather than away from the infant. These findings shed new light on the cues and underlying mechanisms linking infant speech perception and production. Infants who generated a more diverse set of object images by manually manipulating those objects experienced greater vocabulary growth over the next six months.
Our findings may inform reading interventions by providing insight into the cognitive processes involved in the development of reading skills.
Action therefore helped children construct a more accurate mental representation of time, and we found this to be independent of individual differences in motor and memory skill. Synchronized action therefore relieves the cognitive burden of timing, particularly for children. Greater positive parental coping socialization was associated with lower anterior insula and perigenual cingulate activation in healthy adolescents, but higher activation in anxious adolescents.
Coping socialization was indirectly associated with less disengaged coping for anxious adolescents through neural activation. We investigated the relationship between maternal education, phonological awareness skill, and brain lateralization in Kindergarten children. We found laterality was related to maternal education, but not skill in the inferior frontal gyrus IFG , while in the superior temporal gyrus STG the relationship between maternal education and laterality depended on skill level. Thus, maternal education is related to differences in neural recruitment during language processing, yet this difference in recruitment is not indicative of a deficit in linguistic processing in Kindergarten children.
Neonates, after being habituated to a certain number of dots, associated a smaller number with the left and a larger number with the right side. This evidence demonstrates that neonates spontaneously associate numbers with space. Bilingual infants did not place trust in partially reliable others and did place trust in fully reliable adults, regardless of their race.