Your basket:. Addresses the science of fossil insects by demonstrating their contribution to our knowledge of the paleoenvironmental and climatological record of the past 2. This survey also reviews the fossil insect record from Quaternary deposits throughout the world, and points to rewarding areas for future research. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Author Scott Elias.
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To capture flying beetles, flight interception traps were used, made up of a black mosquito mesh 1. A set of plastic food containers half-filled with seawater was placed beneath the mesh to collect the insects Fig. The pitfall and interception traps were emptied twice per week. Map of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region of Alaska, showing the location of the Nunalleq archaeological site image by P.
List and description of the different habitats sampled in the vicinity of the Nunalleq archaeological site.
For some specimens, such as those belonging to the Staphylinidae subfamilies Aleocharinae , Omaliinae and Staphyliniinae , as well as the Pterostichus subgenus Cryobius Chaudoir, this was facilitated by microdissections to allow observation of the genitalia. Identifications were aided by consultation of identification keys and descriptions in entomology publications Anderson and Peck , Arnett and Thomas , Arnett et al. Many specimens were identified, or had their identification confirmed, by taxonomic specialists. The taxonomic classification of Bousquet et al. Information regarding the ecology of individual taxa was compiled from habitat records and descriptions in the literature Anderson and Peck , Arnett and Thomas , Arnett et al.
This was then used to classify these taxa into broad habitat categories, as is customary in archaeo-entomological studies Buckland , Kenward The authors also queried the distribution data available for each of the taxa represented in the dataset in an attempt to identify potential first records for the Y-K delta region. This was achieved by undertaking a search in the Arctos database arctos.
For carabid, dytiscid and staphylinid species,this process was complemented by examining locality records in works published by Lindroth , Lindroth a , Lindroth b , Lindroth , Lindroth , Lindroth a , Lindroth b , Larson et al. The full dataset is archived online and can be accessed at: doi.
This survey recovered a total of beetle specimens belonging to 74 different taxa and spanning 15 families Suppl. In total, 61 of the 74 taxa collected were successfully identified to species level. Of those, 50 are Holarctic in distribution, with the remaining consisting of Nearctic species.
One species, Simplocaria metallica Sturm , is of Holarctic distribution but considered adventive in North America Bousquet et al. In Alaska, it has previously been collected from St. Matthew Islands Sikes et al. Carabus maeander. Diacheila polita. Elaphrus trossulus.
Agonum quinquepunctatum. Pterostichus adstrictus. Thanatophilus sagax. Acidota quadrata. Olophrum latum. Tachinus frigidus. Cyphon variabilis. Melanophila acuminata. Hypolithus littoralis. Photographs of some of the beetle species identified from Quingahak continued. Plateumaris flavipes.
Thirty-four of the identified taxa may be first records for the Y-K delta region. Many of these were collected in regions adjacent to the Y-K delta e. They have probably been established in the Y-K delta for a long time, but perhaps were never collected before simply due to geographical sampling bias.
This survey also produced several records of Amara alpina Paykull. This species is generally considered an indicator of cold climates in palaeo-entomological studies Elias Seventeen specimens were collected at Quinhagak, which is characterised by a subarctic coastal climate.
The nearest observational data comes from Bethel Airport approximately km northeast of Quinhagak where mean winter January and summer July temperatures for the period are Additional records in Alaska include those from St. George Island, ca. Several records from the coast of the Y-K delta also appear in a distribution map for the species provided in Lindroth a.
The subfossil record suggests that the species occupied unglaciated regions of Alaska and the Yukon throughout the Quaternary Reiss et al. Palaeo-entomological and genetic data identify this region as the principal centre-of-origin for A. Three dytiscid specimens were identified as Ilybius angustior Gyllenhal complex. These appear to be closely related to the species I. However, the Quinhagak specimens differ in size and colour as well as in the shape of the male metatarsal claws and aedeagus according to Larson, personal communication, Each identified taxon has been classified into an ecological group Fig.
This includes members of the subgenus Cryobius and rove beetles such as Eucnecosum spp. This group is dominant in this assemblage, totalling about half the total beetle specimens captured Fig. Atomaria sp.
Purchase Advances in Quaternary Entomology, Volume 12 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN , Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Scott Elias grew up in Colorado, in the Rocky Mountain.
The click beetle Neohypdonus restrictulus Mannerheim was also placed in this group as it is believed to be omnivorous, feeding on decaying animal and plant matter DSS, unpublished data. Matthews In red font are those taxa that belong to mesic, hygrophilous and riparian environments, but that are known to be associated with microhabitats available in decaying plant matter e. Relative proportion of each ecological group as defined in Figure 6 represented in the sample. Percentages were calculated on the basis of the total number of Coleoptera within the sample.
Taxa that are typical of mesic to wet tundra habitats and which occur on both sides of the Bering and Chukchi Seas, are the most represented in this survey Fig. About a third of the species identified have been recorded from other late Quaternary sites also located in south-western Alaska, both inland and just west of the Alaska Peninsula Elias The proportion occupied by hygrophilous and riparian beetles is, however, surprisingly limited in view of the abundance of water in the area.
This is no doubt in part due to the fact that sampling took place during the driest period of the year, although sampling bias probably also played a role, given that mesic tundra habitats were more easily accessible and sampled than wetter ones. Notable absentees from this study include several Stenus species, which are common in other subfossil assemblages of Alaska and Siberia e. Elias , Elias et al.